Latest Update: 4/8/2015

Bible Study Guide...
The Exodus - Egyptian pyramids

The Old Testament Passover

The Old Testament Passover is the story of God's promised deliverance of ancient Israel from Egyptian bondage (Genesis 15:13-14; Exodus 12:41). It was also a prophetic feast revealing part of God's plan for the salvation of all mankind, "a shadow of things to come" (Colossians 2:16-17; 1 Corinthians 10:1-11).

The purpose of this study is to guide you through the the sequence of events of the Passover and Days of Unleavened Bread as they were fulfilled in the Old Testament. Read the scriptures to find the biblical answers to the questions. Part 2 will cover the New Testament fulfillment of the Passover by Jesus Christ and its application and meaning to the New Testament Church.

Read: Genesis 15:13 and Exodus 1:1, 5-22

Q. Did God tell Abraham that his descendants would go into salvery? (Gen. 15:13)

Q. Why did Egypt make slaves of the Israelites? (Exodus 1:9-10,12)

Q. Why did the Pharaoh command the midwives to kill all the male Israelite babies? (Ex 1:12,15-16,22)

Q. What did the midwives do? (Ex 1:17)

Q. What did God do for the midwives? (Ex 1:20-21)

Read: Exodus 2:23-25

Q. Why did the Israelites cry out to God? (Ex 2:23)

Q. What causes us to be in bondage today? (Rom. 6:16-17)

Q. Why did God listen to their cry? (Ex 2:24)

Read: Exodus 3:1-10, 15-18; 4:21-23

Q. Who did God call to deliver Israel? (Ex 3:4,10)

Q. What did He call Israel? (Ex. 4:22-23)

Q. What did God instruct Moses to say to Pharaoh? (Ex 3:18; 4:23)

Q. What warning did God give to the Pharaoh if he refused? (Ex. 4:23)

Read: Exodus; 5:1-2

Q. What did Moses tell Pharaoh? (Ex 5:1)

Q. What was Pharaoh's reply? (Ex 5:2)

Q. How many more warnings did God give Pharaoh before carrying out the first warning? (Ex. 7:3,17; 8:2,16,21; 9:2-3,9,18,-19; 10:4-6,21; 11:4-6)

Read: Exodus 11:1-10

Q. What was the tenth plague God warned He would bring against Egypt? (Ex 11:5)

Q. Why and when did the Israelites borrow silver and gold from the Egyptians? (Gen. 15:14; Ex. 3:19-22; 11:2-3; 12:35-36 (NKJV); )

Q. Why did the Egyptians give it to them? (Ex 11:3)

Q. What lesson were the Egyptians to learn from this plague? (Ex 11:7)

Q. Why did the LORD harden Pharaoh's heart? (Ex 5:2; 7:3,5 11:9)

Read: Exodus 12:1-6

Q. When does God say the New Year begins? (vs. 2; Note 1)

Q. What was the purpose of selecting a young lamb without blemish? (Ex 12:5; 1 Peter 1:18-21)

Q. What was the purpose for animal sacrifices? (Hebrew 10:1-3; Galatians 3:19,24)

Q. Do they demonstrate the consequence of sin and need of someone to pay our penalty to deliver us from the bondage of sin and death? (Ezekiel 18:4; Romans 3:23-26; 5:8-10; 6:23; Heb 10:4-10; 9:11-14,28)

Q. What was the male lamb supposed to represent? (Ex 12:11; Leviticus 23:5; John 1:29,36; 1 Corinthians. 5:7)

Q. When were they to kill the lamb? (Ex 12:6 and Deut 16:6; Note 2)

Q. Was this the same time on the 14th that Jesus was crucified? (Mat 27:45-50; Mk 15:33-37,42; Luke 24:44-46; John 19:14,28-31,42 Note 3

Read: Exodus 12:7-15

Q. What did the blood of the lamb represent? (Lev. 17:11; 1 John 1:7; Rev 7:14)

Q. Why were they to put lamb's blood on the doorway of their houses? (Ex 12:13;Note 4)

Q. What was to be eaten with the Lamb? (Ex 12:8; Deut. 16:3)

Q. What would happen to any who ate leavened bread during the 7 days of the Feast? (Ex. 12:15, 19)

Q. What was leaven used to symbolically represent? (1 Cor. 5:6-8; Matt. 16:6,12)

Q. When were they to eat the Passover lamb? (Vs 8,10)

Q. Was the night they ate the Passover the night beginning the 15th of the 1st month? (Vs. 11-12, 29-34)

Q. Was this the night of solemn observance to the Lord for bringing them out of the land of Egypt? (Ex 12:41-42)

Read: Exodus 12:15-28

Q. When were they to begin eating unleavened bread? (Ex 12:15,18-20; Lev 23:6)

Q. Why was none of the lamb to be left over until morning? (Ex 12:10-11; Acts 13:35)

Q. Why were they to eat the lamb, unleavened bread and bitter herbs in haste with their loins girded, shoes on and staff in hand? (Ex 12:11,31-33,41)

Q. Why was this meal called the LORDS Passover? (Ex 12:11, 23; John 18:28; 1 Cor 5:7)

Q. What does Passover mean? (Vs 23; Note 5)

Q. Why were they to not go out of their houses until morning? (Ex 12:22-23)

Q. When did God smite all the 1st born in the land of Egypt? (Ex 4:22-23; 11:4-8; 12:12,29)

Q. Was this the same night they ate the Passover? (Ex 12:11-12)

Read: Exodus 12:29-42

Q. When did Pharaoh finally change his mind to let Israel go? (Ex 12:29-33)

Q. When did Israel leave Egypt? (Ex 12:22, 30-34, 37-42, 51)

Q. Did they plunder the Egyptians before killing and eating the Passover? (Ex 11:2-3; 12:35-36; Note 6)

Q. How many left Egypt? (Ex 12:37-38)

Read: Exodus 12:43-49

Q. Who was allowed to eat the Passover? (Ex 12:43-48)

Q. What was required for a stranger to keep the Passover? (Ex 12:48)

Read: Exodus 13:3-10

Q. Why did God say to keep the Passover as a memorial? Memorial of what? (Ex 12:26-27; 13:3,8-9; Luke 22:19; 1 Corinthians 11:23-26)

Q. When and How often was the Passover to be kept? (Ex. 12:17,24; 13:10; Numbers 9:2-3)

Read: Exodus 13:17-18, 21-22

Q. Why did God lead the people by way of the wilderness? (Ex 13:17-18)

Q. How did God lead them? (Ex 13:21-22)

Read Exodus 14:1-31

Q. Why did God again harden Pharaoh's heart to pursue the Israelites? (Ex 14:4,17-18)

Q. What did the Israelites say when they saw Pharaoh's army? (Ex 14:11-12)

Q. What did Moses say to them? (Ex 14:13-14)

Q. What did God do to protect them? (Ex 14:19-20)

Q. How did God help them finally escape completely from the Egyptians? (Ex 14:21-31)

New Testament Passover continued in Part two

Copyright: Serf Publishing, Inc. 3/1/97 - 2015

[Note 1:

The first month of the year ("shaneh," meaning a revolution of time) began near the spring equinox was called "Abib" meaning green-or young tender ears of grain (Ex. 13:4). Later after the captivity in Esther and Nehemiah's time the first month was called Nisan - Nehemiah 2:1, Esther 3:7)] Back

[Note 2:

The Biblical day which begins at sunset is divided into evening (after sunset, darkness - night) and morning (sunrise, light - day) (Genesis 1:5) The term "in the evening" or "twilight" in the NKJV is translated from the Hebrew "bane ha arbayim" (see Hebrew Interlinear or The Soncino Chumash) in Exodus 12:6. It literally means "between the two darknesses (or evenings)" which would be the 24 hour period from one evening to the next evening. It could also be between sunup and sundown or the day portion of the 14th between the two dark portions of a day. Jewish intrepretations include the going down (decline) of the sun from noon to sunset in the afternoon before the 15th and between sunset and dark, but these have no scriptural proofs and the Scriptures are to be intrepreted by the Scriptures with the help of God's Spirit, not by private intrepretation of men or scholars (John 16:13; 1 Corinthians 2:10; 2 Peter 1:20-21).

An historic account by Josephus (written in the first century) also makes it clear that the traditional time the Jews killed the Passover lambs was on the afternoon of the 14th.

"So these high priests, upon the coming of that feast which is called the Passover, when they slay their sacrifices, from the ninth hour (3 PM) till the eleventh (5 PM)..." (Wars of the Jews, Book 6, Ch. 9, sec. 3). ] Back

[Note 3:

During His life, Jesus kept the Passover of the Jews, as they observed it (John 2:13,23; 11:55-57). But on His last Passover, Jesus established the new covenant Passover service with symbols of the bread and wine representing His body and blood shed in place of the lamb and other sacrifices (Mat 26:26-28; Mk 14:22-25; Lk 22:14-20; 1 Cor 11:23-26; Heb 10:11-14 - see "Why Old Testament Sacrifices?"). The New Testament (covenant) Passover symbols are to be kept annually in the evening beginning the preparation day, as a memorial (reminder) of His sacrifice in fulfillment of the requirements of the law for sin (Eze 18:4; Rom 6:23), and fulfilling the purpose for animal sacrifices (Gal 3:19,22-25; Heb 10:1-3).

Jesus was then killed on the preparation day of the Passover, in the afternoon of Nisan 14, the same time the Jews killed the lambs, and they ate the Passover lamb that evening, beginning the 15th of Nisan, the first day of unleavened bread, which was the "night to be much observed unto the Lord for bringing them out of the land of Egypt" (Ex. 12:15-20, 29-34, 40-51; Deut 16:6; John 18:28; 19:14,31,42). Back

[Note 4:

In the New Testament, Jesus Christ is represented as the "Door" and "Doorkeeper" to the Kingdom of Heaven and also the "Key" (meaning opener) to the kingdom (John 10:1-9; Matthew 16:19; Revelation 3:7). Also the blood of the lamb put on the doorway represented His blood that opens the door to God (Hebrew 10:19] Back

[Note 5:

The Hebrew word for Passover is "Pesach." This word is used in refering to the Lord's Passover, meaning the Lamb, propheticalkly refering to Christ, the Passover feast, a sparing, exemption, immunity from penalty (Ex 12:11,27; Lev 23:5; Num 28:16; Deut 16:1-2,6; 1 Cor 5:7). It comes from "Pasach," meaning to hop, skip, pass over, to spare, etc.] Back

[Note 6:

They were told to go to their Egyptian neighbors before the Passover (Ex. 11:2-3). Exodus 12:35-36 is translated correctly by the NKJV as being in the past tense, they had already done so before the Passover and not on Passover day, as there would not have been time to do so then and pack and kill and eat the Passover lambs.] Back